About Canoe Slalom
What is Canoe Slalom?
Precision and Speed on Whitewater
Canoe Slalom is an exciting adrenalin fuelled sport, where the paddlers have to negotiate their way down a 300m white water rapid. Paddlers race through a series of up to 25 gates, which are made up of red and green poles. The coloured poles determine the direction that the paddlers must past through gates. Paddlers have the challenge to race as fast as they can through the course of gates whilst battling with the challenging white water rapids of waves, stoppers and eddies to accomplish the quickest time. Paddlers are awarded time penalties of 2 seconds if they touch a gate and 50 seconds if they miss a gate altogether, which is added to their running time. The combined score of time and penalties determines the finish order.
There are five categories that Canoe Slalom paddlers compete in. Both women and men race in Kayak single (K1) and the Canoe single (C1) event, men can also race in the Canoe double event.
In their categories the paddlers also compete in team events. Teams consist of three boats, who work together weaving in and out of the course, keeping as close to one another possible.
Canoe Slalom is truly dynamic sport that sees its athletes take on some of nature’s most challenging white water. The athletes are in amongst the elements as they battle through the challenging rapids, demonstrating immense skill and physical strength in order to chance victory.
A short history
Canoe Slalom on whitewater started on 11 September 1932 in Switzerland. The sport’s inventor proclaimed “Slalom is a whitewater test” and his idea came from skiing, where the key terms change from “winter, snow and Ski Slalom” to “summer, water and Canoe Slalom.”
Unfortunately World War Two began just six years after the first Canoe Slalom competition was held in Switzerland and the development of the sport was set back, especially from an Olympic point of view. Once the war was over, the first Canoe Slalom World Championships under the patronage of the ICF were organised in 1949 in Geneva, Switzerland. From this date it is possible to divide the history of Canoe Slalom into three periods: From 1949 - 1972, from 1972 - 1992 and from 1992 to the present day.
The first period is characterised by dramatic changes. Folding and rigid canvas canoes were replaced with fibreglass reinforced plastic boats at championship events. The second important period was filled with changing and simplifying slalom rules as well as with hopes and dreams of slalom becoming an Olympic sport again. This time too, brought dramatic changes in boat construction. The third period began with the reintroduction of Canoe Slalom at the 1992 Olympic Games. This was another period of new changes to the slalom rules: the penalty and the two run system were changed. It was around this time that Canoe Slalom saw a massive increase of interest outside of its traditional home of Europe and North America to all other continents.
The most recent development has come with the introduction of the Women Canoe Class in the 2010 World Championship programme, demonstrating real progression towards gender equity.
The Appeal of Canoe Slalom
What makes Canoe Slalom so exciting? In brief, the fact that an athlete battles the force of pure nature is what makes the sport so enthralling. The image of him, or her, struggling against powerful roaring waters, eddies, swirls, stoppers, etc. is a distinctive one and because of this, Canoe Slalom translates to the screen bringing spectators close to the river.
This intrinsic link to nature brings another dimension to the sport and with that comes a feeling of well-being. Whitewater sport and especially Canoe Slalom play an important role in protecting nature and in protecting our environment, which today is a very specific problem.
Canoe Slalom E-Book
A quarter century ago, Bill Endicott wrote three books on whitewater slalom, ‘The River Masters’ (1977), ‘To Win The Worlds’ (1979), and ‘The Ultimate Run’ (1981). Ever since, athletes from around the world have read and been inspired by these books to get into the sport. Others have used them to learn about serious training. Time has moved on and these books are now out of date, so this Canoe Slalom E-Book has been produced to combine the information from those three books.
The project was undertaken with the hope and understanding that readers will provide their input and feedback, in fact the author, Mr Bill Endicott invites anyone to contact him directly at email@example.com.
Table of contents
- Ch 1 History
- Ch 3 Technique
- Ch 6 case study Intro
- Ch 6a case study RGiddens
- Ch 6b case study OFix
- Ch 6c case study Three in a row
- Ch 6d case study BPeschier
- Ch 6e case study FLefevre
- Ch 6f case study PRatcliffe